Antiquity

Antiquity is divided approximately by millennia. Late prehistory, the 5th Millennium BC, is only accessible through archeological study. Protohistory, the 4th millennnium, is noted for the beginning of writing. During early antiquity, the 3rd millennium, written sources for history begin to appear, although these are fragmentary and incomplete. During middle antiquity, the 2nd millennium, many of the roots of the modern world were established. Late antiquity is the early 1st millennium BC, and is half the length of the earlier periods.

   

Fifth Millennium BC (5000 - 4000 BC)

During this period, the Mesolithic peoples of Europe began to adopt Neolithic culture. the Neolithic peoples of the Middle East were beginning to build larger-scale buildings and practice copper and bronze working. I do not yet have details of the early 5th millennium BC, early mid 5th millennium BC, mid 5th millennium BC, late mid 5th millennium BC, or late 5th millennium BC.

Fourth Millennium BC (4000 - 3000 BC)

During this period, the Neolithic peoples of Europe began to work copper. Peoples of the Middle East were developing larger buildings and cities. Writing was introduced among Sumerian and Egyptian peoples, and written history can be considered to begin late in this period. I do not yet have details of the early 4th millennium BC, the early mid 4th millennium BC, the mid 4th millennium BC, the late mid 4th millennium BC, or the late 4th millennium BC.

Third Millennium BC (3000 - 2000 BC)

Bronze age civilizations of Mesopotamia, Iran, and Egypt arose, and historical events can be reconstructed from various inscriptions. The Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley flourished. I do not yet have details of the early 3rd millennium BC, the early mid 3rd millennium BC, the mid 3rd millennium BC, the late mid 3rd millennium BC, or the late 3rd millennium BC.

Second Millenium BC (2000 - 1000 BC)

Events from this period are not entirely clear, and few records remain. The origins of the Israelite people can be traced to this period. Civilization was largely concentrated in the Middle East, with Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and Hittite peoples as the largest powers. A wave of invaders who spoke Indo-European languages came from somewhere in Central Asia and influenced India, the Middle East, and Europe as well.

I do not yet have details of the early 2nd millennium BC, the early mid 2nd millennium BC, the mid 2nd millennium BC, the late mid 2nd millennium BC, or the late 2nd millennium BC.

Early First Millennium BC (1000 - 500 BC)

Generally speaking, much of the Old Testament (the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles) took place in this period, though the dating of the particular peoples and empires involved is not yet clear here.

Events of the 10th century BC are not yet clear, nor of the 9th Century BC. In about the 8th century BC, Homer is credited with composing the "Illiad" and the "Odyssey". In the 7th century BC, Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism, lived and preached in Persia. The 6th Century BC is noted for the appearance of a number of religious and philosophical leaders, including Socrates in Greece, Gautama Buddha and Mahavira (founder of Jainism) in India, and Confucius and Lao-Tzu in China. Cyrus the Great established the Persian empire.

Other History

Antiquity overlaps with prehistory at the early end. It also overlaps with classical and medieval history at the later end. It has been extensively examined in modern times.

Sociology

The most useful aid to study of antiquity is investigation of the peoples of the world, communities, and social structure and changes. The development of these through the period of antiquity is noticeable.

Institutions

Religion, government, economics, education, and families can be used to examine the 5th millennium BC, the 4th millennium BC, the 3rd millennium BC, the 2nd millennium BC, and the early first millennium BC.

Culture

Behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture will be important in examination of the 5th millennium BC, the 4th millennium BC, the 3rd millennium BC, the 2nd millennium BC, and the early first millennium BC.

Anthropology

Particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be applied to examination of the 5th millennium BC, the 4th millennium BC, the 3rd millennium BC, the 2nd millennium BC, and the early first millennium BC.

Personal studies

Biography, psychology, and the human body can be applied to examination of the 5th millennium BC, 4th millennium BC, 3rd millennium BC, 2nd millennium BC, and 1st millennium BC.

Science

Science can be applied so far to the 3rd millennium BC, the 2nd millennium BC, and the early 1st millennium BC.

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Created 8 May 2004, Updated 2 Feb 2012